ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS BY A K SAWHNEY EBOOK
A course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation – A.K. Sawhney * A Measurements by zetom.info k views. By A. K. SAWHNEY zetom.info (E11gg.) Professor of Electrical E11gineeri11g Tbapar Engineering A Course in Mechanical Measurements and Instrumentation. Download A Course in Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation By A.K. Sawhney – A Course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and.
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ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS. AND -. INSTRUMENTATION. By. A. K. SAWHNEY. zetom.info (Engg.) Professor of Electrical Engineering. A K Sawhney Measurements And Instrumentation Ebook Free Download A Course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and. zetom.infoy-A Course in Electrical and Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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Search Your Files. Join with us. Equivalence of D. Test Voltages. Localization of Faults in High Voltage Cables. High F.
Sinale Stage Impluac Generators. Multistage Impulse Generator. Testing of Transformers. Testing of Insulating Materials. High Voltage Testing of Cables. Measurement of Value of Magnetising Force H.
Testing of Ring Specimens. Deteru mination of BwH Curve. Determination of Hysteresis Loop. Testing of Bar Specimens. Hopkinson Permeameter Bar and Yoke method. Ewing Double Bar Permeameter. Burrows Perrneap. Fahy's Simplex Permeameter. Measurement of Leakage Factor with. Iron Loss Curves. Sepamtion of Iron Losses. Methods of Iron Loss Measurement.
Wattmeter Method. Bridge Methods. Potentiometer Method. Oscillographic Method. Methods of Measurements of Air Gap Flux. Testing of Permanent Magnets. Methods used in Modern Instrumentation Systems. Chapter lllomination Physks of Light. International Luminosity Curve. Energy and Power. Effect of Temperaw ture on Radiation. Full Radiator or Black Body. Primary Standard. Calibratio,a of Standard Lamps with Primary Standard.
Secondary Standards and Substandards. Laboratory Standards. Terms, Definitions and Symb'. Laws of Illuminance Illumination. Visual Photometry. Measurements of Luminous Intensity. Photometer Head. Distribution of Luminous lntensity.
Luminous Intensity. Calculation with a Distributed Source. Physical Phofometry. Photoemissive Cells. Photoconductive Transducers. Photoconductive Celis. Photo diodes. Phototransiswrs Noise in Photoconductor Transducers.
Photocells in Physical Photometry. Measurement of Luminance Unsolved Problems. Electronic Voltmeters. Advantages of Electronic Voltmeters. Vacuum Tube. Voltmeters VTVMs. Average reading Diode Vacuum Tube V ltmeters. Peak reading Diode Vacuum Tube Voltmeters. Triode Vacuum Tube Voltmeters. Transistor Voltmeters TVMs. TVM with Cascaded Transistors. Chopper Amplifier Type Voltmeter. Balanced Bridge TVM. Differential Voltmeter. Voltage Measurements. Reading Voltmeter. Current Measurements Using Electronic Instruments.
Instruments for Measurement of Power at Higher Frequencies. Electrostatic Dcftection.. Deflection Pl. CRT Graticule. Basic CRO Circyits. Beam Osc1lloscopes. Multiple Trace Osc1Jloscopes. Scanning Oscilloscopes. Storage Type Osc1lloscope. Accessories of Cathode Ray Oscilloscopes. Electronic Switch. Feedback Oscillators. Types of Feedback Oscillators. RC Oscillators. Wien Bridge Oscillator. Oscillators Armstrong Oscillator.
Hartley Oscillator. Colpitts Oscillator. Crystal Oscillators. Beat Frequency Oscillator B. Resistance Oscillators. Types of Circuits. Overdriven Amplifier Circuit. Schmitt Trigger Circuit. Active Square Wave Generators.
Wave Analyzers. Hetrodyne Wave Analyzer or Wavemeter. Distortion Meters. Basic Spectrum Analyzer. Spectral Displays. Different Signals. Measurement' of Effective Resistance. Resistance Variation Method. Rcactance Variation Method.
T Networks. Parallel T Network. Bridge T Network. Q Meter. Measurement of Frequency. Dynamic Response. Fre quency Domain Analysis. Mathematical Models of Instrnmentatio11 Sys terns. Linear and NoQ-Lirlear Systems: Electric Networks. Mecnanical Systems: Mechancial Translational. Mechancial Rptational Systems.
Analogous Systems. Thermal Systems. Transfer F1imction. Sinusoidal Transfer Function. Order of a System. Zero Order System. First Order Systems. General First Order Differential Equation. Ramp Response of a First Order System. Impulse Response of a First Order System. Time Response of a Second Order System.
Time Domain Specifications. Ramp Response of a Second Order System. Impulse Response Of a Second Order. Frequency Response of a Firs. Chapter Tnmdocers I: Primary and Secondary Transducers. Classification of DetectorTransducer Stage Devices. Flat Spiral Spring. Torion BatS of Shafts. Proving Rings. Spring FJexture. B ' urdon Tubes. Temperature Detectors. Hydropncumatic Deyices Electric Transducers. Advantages of Electrical Transducers. Classification of Electrical Transducers.
Primary Transducers. Secondary Transducers. Active and Passive Transducers. Active Transducers. Passive Transducers. Analog and Digital Transducfrs: Analog Transducers. Digital Transducers. Electrical Phenomena Used in Transducers.
Resistive Transducers. Loading Effect. Construction of Potentiometers. Strain Gauges: Theory of Strain-Gauges. Types of Strain Gauges. Resistance Wire Strain Gauges. Unbonded Strain Gauges. Bonded Resistance Wire Strain Gruges. Foil Strain Gauges. Semi-conductor Strain Gauges. Resistance Thermometers: Linear Apprmfr mation.
Quadratic Approximation. Resistance Temperature 1Cbaracteristics of Thermistors. Applications of. Ther mistoi's. Variable Inductance Type Transducers.
Differential Output. Currents Liuar: Variable Differential Transform. Diadvantages of LVDTs. Use of LVDTs. Capacitive Transducers. Using Change in Area of Plates. Transducers Using Change in Ddance! Between PJates.
Variation of Dielectric Constant for MC8. Uses of Capacitive Transducers.
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Piezo-electric Transducers. Equivalent Circuit of Piezo. Loading Effect and Pre quency Response. Impulse Response of Piezo-electric Cystals. Uses of Piezo-electric Materials and Transducrs. Optical transducers. Hall effect Transducers. Ionization Transducers. Digital Transducer.
Shaft Encoder. Instrumentation Amplifiers. Operational Amplifiers. Operational Amplifier Specifications. Operational Amplifier Circuits irl Instrumentation.
Multiplier and Divider. Attenuated Feedback. Ideal Rectifier Logarithmic Converter. Buffer Amplifier. Differential Amplifier. Charge Amplifiers. Amplitude Modulation.
Atnplltude Demodulation. Input Modulator. Types of Filters: Low Pass Filters. Bandpass Filters. Current Sensitive Circuits. Bridge Circuits. Null Type Bridge. Deflection Type Bridge. Current sensitive Bridge; AC. Bridges using PushPuU Transducers. Bridges with Push-Pull Inductive Transducers. Inductive Transducers BlumJein Bridge. Capacitive Transducers Blumlein Bridge.
Integration and Differentiation. Resolution and quantization. Aperture Time. Voltage-to Frequency Converter integrating type. Methods of Data. Electrical Telemetering Systems. Telemetry Systems: Voftage Telemetering Systems. Current Telemetering Systems. Telemetry Systems. Amplitude Modulation A,M. Frequency Modulation FM. Pbase Modulation. Pulse Telemetering Systems. Analog Pulse Telemetry: Pulse Frequency System.
Digital Telemetry Pulse. Code Modulation: Radio Channels: Power Line Clnier Ouumeis. Multiplexing in relemetering Systems: Time Division Multiplexing. Decade Counter. Digital Display Methods. Digital Display Units. Segmental Displays: Seven Segmental Display: Fourteen Segmental Display. Dot Matrices: A 3 x 5 Dot Matrix. Dot Matrix Utilizing 27 Dots. A 5 x 7 Dot Matrix. Rear Projection Display. Nixie Tube. Segmental Gas Dis charge Displays. Display Systems. Decimal Decoders: TTL Logic.
Sensitivity of Digital Meters. Accuracy Specification for Digital Meters. Mwurement of Frequency: Basic Circuit.. Time bMe. Start and Stop Gate. High Frgqmmcy Measurements. Period Measurement. Ratio and Multiple Ratio Measrements. Time Interval Measurement. Types of DVMs. Ramp type Digital Voltmeter. Integrating type Digital Voltmeter. Potentiometric type Digital Voltmeter.
Other 1 pes of Measurements with a DVM. Recording Requirements. Analog Recorders. Graphic Recorders. Strip Chart Recorders. Null type Recorders. Potentiometric Recorders. Single Point Recorders. Multipoint Recorders. X-Y Recorders. Ultraviolet Recorders: Recorder Galvanometers. Magnetic Tape Recorders. Advantages of Magnetic Tape Recorders.
Basic Components of a Tape Recorder. Principle of Tape Recorders. Methods of Recording. Direct Recording: Advantages of Direct Recording. Disadvantages of Direct Recording.
Frequency 1. Advantages of PM Recording. Disadvantages of FM Recording. Disadvantages of PDM Recording. Digitllil Tape. Ballast Circuit. Wheastone Bridges: Null Type Wheat. Deflection type Whatstone Bridges. Gauges Sensitivity. Temperature Compensation and Cancellation Techniques: Adjacent Arm Compensating Gauge.
Strain Gauge Calibratim1 Load Cells. Compressive Cells, Rosettes. Strain Gauge Circuitry. Uses of Strain Gauges. Force Summing Devices. Secondary TrlJ. Thermocouple Vacuum Gauges. Pirani Gauges. Strain Gauge Torque Meters. Inductive Torque Trans.. Digital Methods. Magnetostrictive Transducers. Moving Magnet Type. Moving Coil Type Velocity Transducer. Electrical Tachometers. Electromagnetic Tachometer Gene rators.
Drag Cup Rotor A. Photoelectric Tachometer. Toothed Rotor Variable Reluctance Tachometer. Stroboscope and Stroboscopic Methods. Shaft Speed Measurements. Advantages and Disadvantages of Stroboscopic Methods. Nature of Vibrations. Quaptities involved in Vibratio'n Measurements.
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Seismic Transducer. Types of AcceJe.. Potentiometric Type Accelerometer. LVDT Accelerorooters. Piezo-electric Accelerometers. Temperature Measuring Devices. Electrical Resistance Thermometer. Plati num Resistance Thermometer. Salient Features of Resistance Wire Thermometers.
Semi-conductor Thermometers. Characteristics of Thermistors. Measurement of Temperature with Thermistors. Salient Features of Thermistors. Measurement of Thermocouple. Compensating Circuits. Lead Compensation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Thermocouples. Quartz Crystal Thermometer. Radiation Pyrometers. Optical Pyrometers. Turbine Meters. Electromagnetic Flow Meteu.
Hot Wire Anemometers. FJow Meter Using Thermistors.. Electrical Methods: Rrsis tive ti. Inductive Methods. Capacitive Methods. Measurement of Liquiti' Level with Gamma Rays. Liquid Level Using Float. Capacitive Method. Measurement of Thickness Using Ultrasonic Vibrations. Nuclear Radiation Method. Types of. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity..
Measurement of Radiationa. Chamber Scintillation Counters. SoUd Stme fonizat1ou Sensing Elements. Detection of Neutrons. Unsolved Pre bkrrn:.
Iiutrumentation Systems. Types of lnitrumentation Systems. Components of a Digital Data. Acquisition System. Uses of Data Acqubition Systems. Use of Re-eoHk: Programme Pinboard. Output Devices. Mini computers and Micro" processors. Number Systems. Decimal Number System.
A General Number System. Binary Number System. Binary to Decimal Conversion. Binary Addition. Binary Subtraction.. Multiplication of Binary Numbers. Division of Binary Numbers. The Code. Conversion from Binary to Gray Code. Gray Code to Binary Conve1sion. OR Gate. Truth Table. Logic Conversion. AND Gate. NOT Gate. NOR Gate. NAND Gate. Since two quantities are compared the result.
In order that the results of the measurement are meaningful, there are two basic requirements: Significance of Measurements The advancement of Science and Technology is dependent upon a parallel progress in measurement techniques.
It can be safely said that the quickest way to assess a nation's progress in Science and Technology is to examine the type of measurements that are being made and the way in which the data is acquired by measurements and is processed. The reasons for this are abvious. The measurements, no doubt, confirm the validity Ofa hypothesis but also add to its understanding. This results in an unending chain which leads to new discoveries that require more, new and sophisticated measurement techniques.
Hence modern Science and Technology are associated with sophisticated methods of measurement while elementary Scieuce and Technology require only ordinary methods of measurement. Both these functions require measurements.
This is because proper and economical design, operation and maintenance require a feedback. This information is supplied by making suitable measurements. Methods of Measurement The methods of measurement may be broadly classified into two categories. In these methods, the unknown quantity also called the measurand is directly compared against a standard.
The standard, in fact, is a physical embodiment of a unit. Direct methods are quite common f? The unit of length is metre. A humaq being can make direct length comparisons with a preciseness of,.
Therefore, on account of human factors it is not possible to make very accurate measurements. The direct method for measurement of length can be utilized with a good degree of accuracy but when it comes to measuremenf of mass, the problem becomes much more intricate.
It is just not possible for huma? Wide margins of mass.
Measurement by direct methods are not always possible, feasible and pracdcable. These methods in most of the cases, are inaccurate because they involve human factors. Hence direct methods are not preferred and are rarely used. Jn engineering applications Measurement Systems are used.
These measurement systems use indirect methods for measurement purposes. A meaemrement system consists. The analogous signal is then processed by some intermediate means and is. Instromeimt Measurement generally involves using an in. An instrument may be de. Mecbanicnl, Electrica' and Electronic Instruments The first instruments were mechanical in nature and the principles on which these instruments worked are even in vogue today.
The earliest scientific instrumpnts used the same three essential elements as our modern instruments do. These instruments are very reliable for static and stable conditions. But they suffer from a very major disadvantage. Mass presents inertia pr-0bmll s aod hence.
Anotqer disadvantage of mechanical insttuments i! Electrleill Instrumetm. It ii'. ElectroDic lnstrnmentll.. These -days m0. The necessity to step UP, response;! Electronically controlled power supplies are used to provide stable voltages for studies in the field of chemical reactions and nuclear instrumentation.
Electronic instruments are steadily becoming more reliable on acco. The foremost importance of the electronic instruments is the power amplification provided by the electronic amplifiers. Additional power may be fed into the system to provide an increased power output beyond that of the input. It is a fact that hydraulic and pneumatic systems may be used for power amplification of signals.
However, their use is limited tJ slow acting control applications like servo-systems, chemical processes and power systems. Electronic instruments find extensive use in detection of electro.
Electrical and electronic instruments are particularly useful in the intermediate signal modifying stage. Electronic instruments are light compact and have a high degree of reliability.
Their power consumption is very low. Communications is a field which is entirely dependent upon the electronic instruments and associated apparatus. Space commuriications, especially, makes use of air borne transmitters and receivers and job of interpreting the signals is left entirely to the electronic instruments.
Electronic instruments make it possible to build analog and digital eomputers without which the modern developments in science and technology are virtually impossible. Computers require a very fast time response and it is only possible with use of electronic instruments.
There are many ways in which instruments can be classified. Broadly, instruments are classified into two categories: Absolute Instruments. These instruments give the. The examples of this class of instruments are Tangent Galvanometer and Rayleigh's current balance. Secondary Instruments. These instruments are SO' constructed that the quantity being measured can only be measured by observing the output indicated by the instrument.
These instruments are calibrated by comparison with an absolute instrument or another secondary instrument which has already been calibrated against an absolute instrument.
Working with absolute instruments for routine work is time consuming since every time a measurement is made, it takes a lot of time to compute the magnitude of the quantity under measurement. Absolute instruments are seldom used except in standards institutions while secondary instruments find usage almost in every sphere of measurement. A voltmeter, a glass thermometer and a pressure gauge are typicalexample.
Signals that vary in a continuous fashion and take on an infinity of values in any given range are called analog signals.. The devices which produce ihese signals are called analog. The devfoes the. Let us elabo. In an analogue system the function varies continuously. On the other hand the d1g1tal. Each digital number is a fixed sum of equal steps which is defined by the 8.
For example a point A on ; 3 the analogue curve is 55 from the origin but in digital system. But tf we d1v1de each of the 10 steps into 10 equal parts, we get steps instead of But it should be kept m mmd that a d1g1tal number 1s still a sum of equal umts. In a digital system, magnitudes lying within one of these steps lose their identity and are all defined by the same number.
For example, if we have ten steps, numbers lying between 2'5 to 35 i. From the above discussion we conclude that the difference between analog and digital information is. The last digit of any digital number is rounded to 0'5 of the last digit. It should also be marked that the magnitude of the digital quantity is measured only at the instant the reading is taken.
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The majority of present day instruments are analogue type. Since digital computer works only with digital signals, any information supplied to it must be in digital form.
The computer's output is also in digital form. Functiom of IMtnme! There is another way in which instruments or measurement systems may be classified. This classification is based upon the functions they perform.
The three main functions are explained below: Indicating Function. M-0st of the time this information is obtained as a deflection of a pointer of a measuring instrument.
In this way the instrument performs a function which is commonly known as indicating function. Jhus the. Controlling Function. This is one of the most important functions especially in the field of industrial control processes. In 1his case, the information is used by the instrument or the system to control the original measured quantity.
Thus there are three main groups of instruments. The largest group has the indicating function. Next in line is the group of instruments which have both indicating and or recording functions. The last group falls into a special category and performs all the three functions, I. In this text, main emphasis is laid upon instruments whose functions are mainly indicating auu recording, especially those instruments which are used for engineering analysis purposes. The control function will be analyzed in those cases where controlling enters as an integral part of the indicating and recording functions of instrumentation.
The examples of controlling instruments are thermostats for temperature control and floats for liquid level control. In order to build up background for our later detailed study of measuring instruments and systems and their characteristics, it is useful to discuss, in general, the various ways these instruments are put in use.
The way the instruments and measurement systems are used for different applications are as under: Monitoring of processes and operations. Experimental Engineering analysis. Monitoring of Processes and Operations. There are certain applications of measuring instruments that have essentially a monitoring function.The control function will be analyzed in those cases where controlling enters as an integral part of the indicating and recording functions of instrumentation.
Testing of Permanent Magnets. EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford downloading books is our aim. Types of Filters: Since two quantities are compared the result. VArh Metering.