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In this Artical we are sharing LEXICON Ethics, Integrity And Aptitude PDF. This Book is very Usefu for GS4 For UPSC and State PCS exams. @VinodKatrela. LEXICON. ForEthics, Integrity & Aptitude. K t. I. * as a d. 1. I H K. s n. CHRONICLE. Nurturing Talent 5wee Raz Kr. Complete Study Material for GS 4 Mains: (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)Source: Lexicon by ChronicleNotes Link: Mrunal Ethics lectures PDF.

Lexicon For Ethics Integrity And Aptitude Pdf

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Read Lexicon For Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude (civil service chronicle) book reviews & author details and more at zetom.info Free delivery on qualified orders. Ethics: Contemporary Readings – Download From Here (FREE) [In case you don' t know how to download – On the landing page,. 1) Click on. Lexicon Ethics by Raz Kr - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or LEXICON For Ethics, Integrity, & Aptitude. CHRONICLE BOOKS A DIVISION.

What Ethics is Not? We can distinguish between human actions and actions of human: Actions of human may not be wilfully. Some cultures are quite ethical. It is the intention which makes the difference between human action and action of human. The institutions which are designed to make life easier and better for humankind. How far the society car go on demanding? Shouldn 't it respect the freedom of the individual? Is morality made for man or man is made for morality? Morality is a lot like nutrition.

This means that there is not only a subjective aspect to every human action but also an objective one that prompts human person to base himself herself on certain common principles. Viewed from this point. The ethical principles and moral practices help one to attain what is best. Moraiity has to do more with one's interior self than the practice of some customs or set rules.

Not few are the people who ask this question: Why should we be moral? Why should we take part in the moral institution of life? Why should we adopt a moral point of view?

In every human person there is a deep desire for good. Often thinking of the good. We also find that for the functioning of any society we need certain rules and regulations. Human being by nature tend to good. It aims to find out people's beliefs about values. It gives us a general pattern ora way of life of people in different types of communities. It involves empirical investigation. Descriptive ethics studies the history and evolution of ethics.

Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral consciousness is an example of Descriptive Ethics See Unit 5 for Kohlberg' s theory. It tries to discover a more objective standpoint of evaluation than that of purely personal preference. Descriptive ethics investigates people's ethical ideals or what actions are condemned in a society.

Descriptive ethics seeks the explanation of actual choices made by moral agents in Raz Kr. So too is our moral life. It gives a record of certain taboos. Morality aims to provide us with a common point of view from which we can come to agreement about what all of us ought to do. Branches of Ethics There are four branches of Ethics. While nutrition focuses or our physical health.

For example. It provides justification for punishing a person who disturbs social and moral order.

The Golden Rule is a classic example of a normative principle: Using this same reasoning. Normative ethics offer the moral principles to use to resolve.

Descriptive Ethics is a value-free approach to ethics. Aristotle' s virtue ethics. It is empirical investigation of people' s moral beliefs. Kant s deontoiogical ethics. Other normative theories focus on a set of foundational principles. It is the study of ethical theories that prescribe how people ought to act.

It tries to establish certain theories on the guidelines of some norms. It tries to examine the ethical codes applied by various groups. It examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions Normative ethics suggests punishment when a person deviates from the path of ideals. Since one would want people to feed him if he was starving. In a sense. Normative ethics is also called as prescriptive ethics. Normative Ethics Normative ethics involves arriving at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct.

Meta ethics analyses ethical concepts. Meta ethics seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties and evaluations. In Meta ethics. We use certain moral concepts such as right. Meta ethics deals with the questions such as "What is the meaning of moral terms or judgments? How may moral judgments be supported or defended? The term "meta" means after or beyond. These moral concepts are used as tools in passing moral judgments. Meta ethics is the study of what ethical terms and theories actually refer to.

There are certain issues which arise due to newly adopted life style. Applied ethics deals with the questions such as. It helps to use knowledge of moral principles to present dilemmas. Values are like an anchor in a ship. A person with strong values or character sticks to his principles and Is not swept away. Determinants of Ethics in Governance The levels of ethics in governance are dependent on the social. These specific factors influence ethics in public administrative systems. When a storm comes.

Values Values are the individual principles or qualities that guide judgement and behaviour of a person or a group. These values are an inbuilt mechanism.

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It is an End. An intrinsic value is one which has worth in its own right. So we classify values on the basis of importance these values have.

AH values are experiences of different degrees of importance in the development of individuality. Intrinsic Values and Extrinsic Values Values can be viewed from the standpoint of their importance.

Individual or personal values vary to the extent one is conscious towards this inner source and the extent to which one tends to compromise with it in the given cultural environment and other compulsions. Values are concerned with character and conduct of a person and evaluate the voluntary and habitual actions of individuals with reference to their being right or wrong.

They are good not because of their consequences but because they are good in themselves. They refer to our intrinsic humanness. For each one of us. At the same lime. There is another view on the values. We can say that there are uniform Universal values inbuilt in each one of UsH They fEow out of the highest of our own self.

In general. Extrinsic or Instrumental values are the part of larger whole. Is related to issues of right or wrong and to how individuals should behave.

What is valued by one person for its own sake may be valued by another person as a means to an end. Intrinsic values are said to be Absolute values. The values corresponding to these functions are Intellectual Values Truth. The locus of values is human mind. They are not always mutually exclusive or fixed. II is a special sort of reaction to the environment.

Ethics and morals seem to appear similar on the face of it. Ethics define the code that a society or group of people adhere to. Beauty and Good are Universal Values. Intrinsic Values are rated higher than Extrinsic Values. Therefore Morality means standards of conduct that are accepted as right or proper. Permanent Values and Transient Values. The spectacles have instrumental value.

Human mind has three psychical functions aspects thinking. It is of instrumental worth only. The terms Extrinsic and Intrinsic are used relatively. Positive Values are preferred to Negative Values. It is based on personal conscience rather than what the law says. A pair of spectacles is good only if there are eyes behind spectacles to see through them.

Productive Values and Unproductive values. An Extrinsic value is one which is a means to some other value. Values can be graded as Positive Values and Negative Values. They are means to an End. Ethics in Public Administration The notion of ethics has expanded itself to Involve all major realms of human existence. A Value system ' is an enduring organisation of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence along a continuum of importance.

Values and Morals Ethics can also be defined as prepositional statements standards that are used by members of a profession or group to determine what the right course of action in a situation is.

Ethics rely on logical and rational criteria to reach a decision. As such. They are used to negotiate. For e. Jike equality and social justice. Morals describe a behavioural code of conduct to which an individual ascribes. Considered together. To value something means that we hold it dear and feel it has worth to us. Value System Values constitute an important aspect of self-concept and serve as guiding principles for an individual.

An administrator would be committed to his duties and perform his work with involvement. An administrator wi 11 follow the law and rules that are framed to govern and guide various categories of policies and decisions. An administrator would not hesitate to accept responsibility for his decision and actions.

In situation of conflicting goals. Work is considered not as a burden but as an opportunity to serve and constructively contribute to society. An administrator would respond effectively to the demands and challenges from the external as well as internal environment. An administrator would ensure the highest standards of quality in administrative decisions and actions and would not compromise with standards because of convenience or complacency.

He would adapt to environmental transformation and yet sustain Raz Kr. In a competitive international environment. An administrator would rationally bring about a fusion of individual. While makingand implementing policies and decisions. An administrator will make decisions and implement them in a transparent manner so that those affected by the decisions and those who wish to evaluate their rationale. At least. Though universalistic in orientation and liberal in outlook.

The Japanese. Those responsible for formulation and execution of policies and decisions of governance would ensure that respect is shown to the principles of equality. This automatically raises the level of service rendered and the products delivered. In situations of deviation ethical norms. An administrator. Public Relations Public Relations have now become a vital function affecting management decisions and influencing public opinion in every public or private organisation.

Ethics in Public Relations Public Relations recognise a long-term responsibility and seek to persuade and to achieve mutual understanding by securing the willing acceptance of attitudes and ideas. In Public Relations. It is a difficult task to describe what is ethical and what is unethical.

It would be simpler to state it as a matter of choosing between the right and wrong options in keeping with conscience. An administrator would undertake an administrative action on the basis of honesty and not use his power. The reasons for it being so are as follows: Anything that causes dissonance in the mind brings Raz Kr.

It can succeed only when the basic policy is ethical. An example of the i mportance attached to the above-mentioned ethical principles is found in the " Seven Principles of Public Life " Raz Kr. There are a number of acts that could be classified as unethical. This is seen as critical to providing both public officials and the public wilh a common frame of reference regarding the principles and standards to be applied and in assisting public officials to develop an appreciation of the ethical issues involved in effective and efficient public service delivery.

As Abraham Lincoln saidr you can fool some people all the time. Use of undesirable method towards pressurising editors for carrying publicity material. Postponing to serve a cause but actually serving some other interest.

Public are also not to be underestimated as fools. Values in Public Relationships The importance of articulating ethics and the values that define and underpin the public service. Misrepresenting facts. With increasing education. And dishonest communication cannot be an aid to cementing relationships. Unethical act in public relations may include: Promising results that cannot be obtained. Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.

Human Values The values according to or against which we act are the unavoidable and essential element of all important decisions in the human arena.

In carrying out public business. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other benefits for themselves.

Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example. Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office. Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take.

Values are the link that ties together personal Raz Kr. Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organisations that might influence them En the performance of their official duties. Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.

Basic Human Values Human Values which have wide common appeal even a universal relevance. In this sense they are universal. The same applies in understanding social and political life. The great predominance of violence. A make-or-break idea is that values or precepts. They are also essential in improving man and society too. What do Human Values consist of? Human values can be formulated or expressed in many ways: They are related to differing cultures.

Because they are human. This can be taken as a basic category or general human value which relates to concern and respect for others and the environment. Evidence that truth is an inherent value in the human psyche is found in the fact that no-one likes to be called a liar. Peacefulness in a person' s life.

It is common to include altruism. Being neither a sensation. The less selfish it is. Its essence can be characterised by the words "Love is unselfish care and concern for the well -being of others and the world at large.

Knowledge of what is true combined with insight into what is good. White peace is the absence of disturbance. This is the reasonable tendency to wish to avoid harm to creatures or their environment wherever avoidable. Behind any conscious act lies the thought.

The idea of justice is difficult to define satisfactorily. This is also found in the Eastern concept of ' dharma ' or action in accordance with the universal laws of nature both physical and human nature. It is based on fairness. Responsibility The human value of doing one' s duty is dosefy related to non violence. If the thought is fed by the will towards the true and the good. Respecting the integral nature of ecosystems or of a social-natural environment as against the destructive influences of pollution.

Peace of mind is individual. Justice The European tradition has long embraced justice as one the highest human values. Without truth. Lessons from Lives of Great Leaders. This value is to be understood in the deep Vedic sense of 'Ahimsa'. The human value justice also has wide. Administrative theorists describe the essential roles and tasks of administration as planning.

Thus a similarity exists between administration and management. Management is also concerned with tasks such as planning. As such it is a social value in that il aims to resolve and reduce conflict. The Classical Greek idea of justice eventually gave rise to that of 'human rights '. Human Values. Leader and Administrator. An administrator then is one who is responsible for carrying out this process.

The aim to achieve social justice for the perceived common good has certainly a long pre-history as a central idea in all human societies. Meaning and Differences Administration is defined as a process of working with and through others to accomplish the agreed goals efficiently.

Their ability to influence is founded upon the formal authority inherent in their positions. An administrator is concerned with carrying out policies. A political reformer is one who promises voters that he will address poor practices or questionable activities in government. Administrators are appointed. In contrast. An administrator does the thing right. They have a legitimate power base and can reward and punish. A social reformer is a disputant who advocates for reforms to discard the social evils like child marriage.

Leaders can influence others to perform beyond the actions dictated by formal authority. Examples of social reformers include Dr.

Another distinguishing factor between leaders and administrators is that leaders initiate new structures or procedures to achieve organizational goals or objectives. It is envisioning mission. In this sense. Reformer A reformer is a person who wants to improve the prevailing conditions in society by bringing about reforms in any area of human activity e.

These people have been able to make an impact on the people with their philosophy and great work for the society. A religious reformer is someone who feels that a certain religion has overstepped its bounds or has lost its original message. Abraham Lincoln. An attitude to serve the people. Nielson Mandela. Administrator and Reformer: Common Values Though they may require different attitudes. Vaclav Havel. Martin Luther King Jr.

Aung San 5 u Ki and Mother Teresa. In the next section.

In Raz Kr. Sam Pitroda. Lessons from the lives of Great Reformers India. Guru Narak Dev. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. Lessons from the Lives of Great Administrators Our generation has been fortunate enough to have some of the best administrators in the world Some of them are as tollowsVerghese Kurien.

Here we mention some of the professional and human values which have been the source of their guidance in the field of adminisirat ion-. Menon and CVG Krishnamurthy. Raja Rammohan Roy. From the work of these administrators. Finer said. Their nature. All the books of dvies would emphasise civic consciousness for the progress of the country.

Role of Family Family being the first and major agency of socialization has great influence and bearing on the development of the child.

Lexicon Ethics by Raz Kr

Inculcating Values. This is possible Raz Kr. Role of Society Administrative morality is a part and parcel of the general morality of the community.

The different aims of education-development of the human personality. The members of all the communities would then cooperate with the personnel in the public services.

And the personnel in the public services would work hard to bring about all round development of the people. It is through education that society seeks to preserve and promote Its cherished values.

People ' s character is the ultimate source which can supply kinetic energy for modernisation and development. There is a great need to infuse civic consciousness. Education necessarily involves transmission of values. Role of Educational Institutes Education is a process of initiating the learners into a form of life that is considered as desirable to preserve and promote.

Attitudes are the feelings and beliefs that determine the behaviour of the persons. Therefore all variables must be identified and analysed which help in the formation of favourable Raz Kr. The positive attitudes yield favourable behaviour and the negative attitudes yield unfavourable behaviour.

They provide framework for responding in a particular fashion. The attitudes may be positive or negative. The persons having positive attitudes towards the job and organisation may contribute their best to the organisation. Affective Component The affective component of attitudes refers to feelings or emotions e.

Affect plays a very important role in attitude formation. How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales. When you form your opinion or judgment on the basis of available information and decide whether you have a favourable or unfavourable opinion on that. The predisposition to behave in a certain manner may be caused by affective and cognitive components. Behavioural Component The behavioural component of attitudes refers to a tendency or a predisposition to act in a certain manner.

Categories of Attitudes. Result of Conscious Cognition Implicit attitudes. Since cognitive pari is absent in these attitudes so these are largely influenced by affective experiences and because of these experiences priming affects implicit attitudes than explicit altitudes. Sometimes unknowingly we attribute something for object that is implicit attitude which are governed by our past memories sometimes forgotten memories.

Result of Unconscious Cognition Explicit Attitudes They are characterized as the attitudes which are the result of conscious cognition.

Explicit attitudes are mostly affected by recent or more accessible events. The basic difference between these two types of attitudes is conscious and unconscious cognition. These types of attitudes represent cognitive and motivational factors behind the assigning of attitude. It just comes out from our self without an intention. Since implicit attitudes are more closely related to affective experiences and the 'culture' is a collection of certain feelings and emotions.

Since self is involved more consciously in it so sometimes it is known as 'self reported attitude'. We do not deliberately think over it. Implicit Attitudes Implicit attitudes are derived from past memories. Explicit and Implicit Attitudes are divided into two categories as given below.

Formation of Attitude Right from our birth onwards. A stimulus is a factor that causes a response in an organism. The conditioned stimulus is the Raz Kr.

In this experiment. Conditioning is usually done by pairing the two stimuli. The food elicited salivation unconditioned stimulus. Pavlov presented dogs with a ringing bell followed by food. It is believed that attitudes are by and large acquired as a result of various life experiences. Classical conditioning could play a role in establishing some of the emotional components of attitudes and prejudice Further.

The degree to which attitudes are verbally or nonverbally reinforced by others will affect the acquiring and maintenance of attitudes. Muslims-Fundamentaltsts throughout their early years of development may come to adopt such negative attitudes themselves without even meeting them.

Observational Learning The phenomenon by which a person acquires new forms of behaviour or thought simply by observing the rewards and punishments that others get is called observational learning. Genetic Factors Genetic factors also play a role in shaping attitudes of an individual. Muslims' Aggressive. Attitude Ambivalence People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object. Attitude Accessibility Attitude accessibility refers to the ease with which attitudes can be retrieved from memory.

Attitude strength involves several dimensions. Attitudes that are more accessible from memory are more predictive of behaviour. These attitudes are often related to important values. Moral Attitude All humans hold and express moral attitudes.

Attitude ambivalence may also be the result of conflicting values. Moral attitudes are also present when states of the world are described in terms of " good" or "bad " and "better or worse " as this tells us something about the values and worldview of the speaker.

Big differences exist in what people describe as good or right. Moral values are the highest among all natural values. Attitude ambivalence refers to the fact that our evaluations of objects. This preRaz Kr. The moral values were also recognized by the great minds.

Moral attitudes include moral judgments such as "right or wrong" and " blameworthy or praiseworthy ". What is realized and what shines forth in an act of real forgiveness. It implies an energetic approach to the social and material world and includes traits such as sociability.

Political Attitude and Personality Traits Scholars have acknowledged that certain personality traits influence our political leanings and orientation.

It describes socially prescribed impulse control that facilitates task and goal directed behaviour. Openness to Experience versus closed-mindedness describes the breadth. In this regard. Agreeableness contrasts a pro. Political attitudes are those directed toward political objects. Emotional Stability describes eventemperedness and contrasts with negative emotionality.

Katz says we develop positive attitudes towards those objects that are associated with rewards and develop negative attitudes toward those that are associated with punishment. Some attitudes serve to protect us from acknowledging basic truths about ourselves or the harsh realities of life.

Defensive Function. Value-expressive attitudes show who we are. Attitudes satisfy this knowledge function by providing a frame of reference for organizing our world so that it makes sense Using such a cognitive perspective. These can help a person cope with emotional - conflicts and protect self esteem. I his fund ion is very close to the concept of instrumental conditioning.

Four of these five traits are expected to influence our ideology. We all have a need to attain some degree of meaningful. People hold given attitudes because these attitudes help them achieve their basic goals. Hence they serve to demonstrate one' s self-image to others and to express our basic values.

Social identity function refers to the Raz Kr. The only exception is extroversion. Functions of Attitude Katz takes the view that attitudes are determined by the functions they serve for us. Influence of Attitudes on Behaviour Various research works suggested that attitudes simply influence behaviour. A measured or expressed attitude may not be a person' s true attitude especially when dealing with sensitive issues.

The most recent research works suggest that the extent of influence of attitudes on behaviour depends upon certain factors. Attitude specificity. T rue attitude and the expressed attitudes differ because both are subject to other influences.

The effects of an attitude becomes more apparent when we look at a person's aggregate or average behaviour rather than at an individual act. That's because the weather. Following are the factors. In fact. All port defined attitudes as tendencies or predispositions to behave in certain ways in social situations.

The stronger the attitudes are. The more accessible attitudes can be spontaneously and automatically activated without our conscious awareness. The attitudes of more personally involved individuals will be stronger predictors of behaviour than attitudes of the less involved. Attitude accessibility refers to the ease with which attitudes can be retrieved from memory. Attitudes can predict behaviour if both altitudes and behaviours are measured at similar levels of specificity.

JDo you like lo eat Mexican foodf rather than on general ones e. So long as persons are noi aware of their attitudes. Do you like to go out to eat? Another aspect that influences behaviour is the self awareness. On the other hand if an individual Is aware of his attitude. In order to give answers to why these atypical behaviours occur.

Attitudes formed through direct experience are stronger. SO that the appearance of agreement is maintained. If the two conversing people In the previous example both express racist statements. A variety of scholars have defined ways in which individuals respond to social influences. The individual in an influential situation could comply. The studies related to social influence focus on ways in which behaviour is influenced by outside factors.

For instance. Social Influence Social influence is a major topic in social psychology and looks at how individual thoughts. Social psychologists emphasise the core observation that human behaviour is a function of both the person and the situation.

A person whose wardrobe choice is solely influenced by the fashion advice of a supemnodel would be expressing identification. He found that people were willing to get along and make decisions consistently with the group even when the group made clear errors. Another way of viewing these influences is to discuss the types of things that may affect the behaviour of an average person. What other people are doing in peer groups is a powerful influence.

Asch concluded that people would rather make wrong decisions lhan to suffer social rejection. This is related to a human s fundamental need to belong to a social group thus increasing their chances to survive.

These include the person' s family. B or C matches the first line? Other factors. Baumeister and Bushman divided types of social influence into two major forms. In his experiment. By agreeing on common beliefs. Types of Social Influence Social influence in general refers to how one can be influenced or affected by others.

Test for example yourself: Crisis situations: When people do not have Lime to think what to do. Principles of Social Influence Principles of Social Influence play on fundamental human instincts and can be exploited both intentionally and unintentionally by professional influence agents. This is especially during ambiguous situations when we do not have a dear idea of what to do. It might seem obvious. Many of these may seem like obvious tactics that advertisers and influence agents will utilize to sway our opinion.

Two types of situations produce informational influence: When people do not know what to do. Combined with the idea of commitment.

Authority is reflected in different forms such as clothes. Uncertain people can be influenced easily. Another example that speaks out for itself is censorship. The rule of scarcity depicts that items and opportunities become more desirable as they are less accessible. It consists of several elements: The level of being unique or the fact they represent elsewhere unattainable advantages.

The censored subjects or things are always the more interesting ones and do gain automatically in importance. Meaning of Norms Social norms are group-held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society ' s behaviours.

The infl uential power of authority is under [able. This principle illustrates that people often decided what to do by looking at what similar others have done. The first form is parental authority. This principle functions even better as people are in a condition of uncertainty. A norm gives a person a rule of thumb for how they should behave.

He was the social psychologist from Yale University who studied the effect of films on soldier morale. Source Likeability is seen as similar and attractive. Experts can be influential because people assume they know what they are talking about but at the same time they also have to be trustworthy.

He and other co-researchers then studied what can be termed as " who says what to whom" as. The halo effect refers to the assumption that because people have desirable traits such as physical attractiveness.

To whom: The " whom" refers to the audience. The " who " component represents the source of the message. Forewarned Being forewarned of the persuasion attempts can protect a person from being persuaded.

This is because forewarning influences several cognitive processes that play an important role in persuasion. Forewarning gives us the opportunity to come up with counter arguments that can refute the message and gives people more time to recall relevant facts that can help refute the message.

When people do the exact opposite of what they are being persuaded to do. This is why a message delivered by an attractive person is perceived as more powerful than a message delivered by a less attractive person.

When people believe someone is trying to persuade them and may take away their freedom of choice.


Defences against Influence Techniques These techniques to resist persuasion are related to the techniques of social influences. Considering this. If someone makes a strong attempt to change a prospect' s attitude toward a subject. If we are aware of various social influence techniques and perceive them as tricks to persuade us.

This would be dealt in following sub-headings: In dealing with persuasion. The task of administration via-a. The Administration is expected to act as an agent of social change and economic transformation. Public administration in a democracy must be based on public consent and support. The aspirations of the people must be taken into consideration by the administration.

People ' s mind must be known to the administration and at the same time. Until the advent of the twentieth century. To overcome this and generate zeal for development is a great challenge. In the process. They are reluctant in disposal of work. The public is suspicious about the integrity of the public officials and regard 'right contacts '. In order to cope up with this problem. It has already been pointed out that vast majority of people in India are illiterate.

The public feels that the bureaucrats are too much rule-minded and totally devoid of any human considerations. To urge public to participate actively in the process of development is a challenge before the Indian administration.

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Numerous complaints are always made by the public against the civil servants regarding delays in disposal of cases. The ' administrators' find the masses indifferent and the masses view the administrators as apathetic and disinterested in the development process.

The relationship between the citizens and public servants lack cordiality and mutual understanding. The administrators. According to him. The civil servants complain that there is too much interference in the administration and that the citizens try to bring pressure through local politicians.

As regards the linkage between the public and the administrators.. Another standing complaint about the masses is that the general masses neither take keen interest in their own affairs nor do they show any initiative for bettering their own prospects. To some extent. How to reconcile these mutually opposed views? Can the relationship between the two be improved? CP Bhambri opines that something more needs to be done to change apathetic attitude of the citizens and make them positive and participate in the functioning of the administration.

Such an agency enables the j. The egalitarian goals enshrined in the Constitution of our country cannot be attained through the efforts of administration only.

If the total transformation in our traditional and backward society is to fake place rapidly, the tendency of our people to rely on government administration for fulfilment of each and every need will have to be abandoned. Public must shed away its negative role and adopt positive role The aspirants of progress and prosperity cannot hold apathetic attitude towards their own issues of development.

They cannot remain detached from and indifferent toward activities of the democratic government. Their initiative, interest, wholehearted support and active cooperation together with direct participation in governmental activities must be mustered behind the enormous efforts of our public administration.

The success of the administration depends upon the involvement,, commitment, dedication and sacrifice with which the public servants put their efforts for the welfare of the teeming millions in the country. The administrators should see that they interact with the common people, especially those from rural areas because it is them who need the administrators most. In this regard, following has been rightly noted by Hota Committee "Introduction of sophisticated technology alone would not make the administration people- friendly unless higher civil servants ' have a proactive attitude and reach out to the common people.

They must spend much more time in field visits, inspections, tours and night halts in remote and rural areas,". X, are facing the problem of extortion. They have to give a fixed amount for their earning to a local goon, who extorts money from them by threatening them of dire consequences, even loss of life. The shopkeepers, due to fear, did not prefer to report the matter to the police station as they feel that police is unable to protect them and their family, Mr.

X comes to know about this problem of shopkeepers through one of his sources. He also comes to know that the goon has the support of an influential politician, who belongs to the ruling party in Maharashtra. In the lack of initiatives taken by shopkeepers, it is difficult for Mr. X, to gather enough evidence against that goon. Under these circumstances what are the options available with Mr.

X to deal with the issue? This case comes under the following topics: The given case pertains to the relation between police and public. The lack of faith in the police has deterred those in problem shopkeepers to register the case. In the lack of evidence, it is difficult for the police officer to gather evidence against the goon as none of the shopkeepers is ready to give statement. The case also highlights the work culture of police and their ability of social persuasion.

That the goon is having the support of an influential politician, the case also represents the dilemma of a police officer to act against him, especially in the lack of evidence. This also exemplifies the politicization of crime. Police is the primary agency to maintain law and order. It has the duty to ensure that rule of law and those responsible for its violation should be brought in the court of law. In this light, it can be clearly argued that the first and foremost role of policing is to work of a crime- free society where everyone can live with peace and harmony.

In this light, it is clear that it is the duty of Mr. X to take the Issue seriously and work for the resolution of the problems faced by the shopkeepers, So it Is needless to say Ehat he can 't let the issue unnoticed and wait for shopkeepers to reach him with complain, Bui the problem faced by him is that shopkeepers are unwilling to register the case and any suo moto interference without any evidence can invite disciplinary actions against Mr, X. Besides, his conduct can be questioned which may affect his service records.

Moreover he would also face political hurdles as the goon enjoys the support of an influential politician belonging to the ruling party.

Under these circumstances, the following course of action can be best suited to Mr, X:. As an immediate step, Mr. X should deploy some police officers in the area to verify the truth of the fact, as taking any action without adequate knowledge would be against the rule of law,.

Once verified, Mr , X should meet with the Representatives of Association of Shopkeepers in that area and assure them that police is for their protection only. If possible he should try to.

The role of Association is important here, because the case highlights that shopkeepers lack faith in police and any attempt of direct talk may result in the failure. As the politician from the ruling party is involved, Mr. X should also convey the case to his superiors and take their advice on the matter that how they had dealt such cases, if any, in the past.

The key in solving the issue lies in persuasion of shopkeepers to register the complaint against the goon, without any fear If Mr, X is unable to do this, he should try to collect evidence with the heJp of some of the local persons not shopkeepers. He may seek help from media but this should be done with utmost care as it may impact the image of the politician and hence the party in power.

Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections. Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance. Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

Probity in Governance: Shashidthakur download links. AKblog books download links. Recordings of Top Institutes. Gujarati Literature Materials. Public Administration Notes. Sociology Notes. Ministry Rural Development.

Ministry Parliamentary Affairs. Department of Consumer Affairs. Ministry Tribal Affairs. Unacademy PDF Materials. Hindi medium materials-NL.What would you have done if you had been in the situation of Chandan? So how does that matter to our preparation for GS paper IV?

Chandan felt that the large allocation to minor irrigation projects will benefit land owning farmers and Starve other social programmes. T rue attitude and the expressed attitudes differ because both are subject to other influences.

Both were in love and wanted to marry but the caste conflict prevailing in the village was the biggest hurdle to them. That's because the weather.