NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF THE RUMINANT PDF
Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant Read Online · Download PDF; Save; Cite this Item Until the s the study of ruminant nutrition stood apart from the rest of nutrition science, which had little appreciation for the 2 Nutritional Concepts. He has extended precepts of ruminant nutritional ecology to such distant adaptations as the giant panda and streamlined conceptual issues in a clearer logical. PDF | 1. Two contrasting explanations of niche separation in ruminants emphasize the importance of body mass-related trends in energy.
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The library was established in Rome at the FAO Conference, according to the decisions of the Conference. It was named David Lubin Memorial. This monumental text-reference places in clear persepctive the importance of nutritional assessments to the ecology and biology of ruminants and other. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Second edition, Peter zetom.info Soest, Cornstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Eage House, East.
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Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant
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Google Scholar. Eventually all MCP will flow down to the lower gastrointestinal tract where it will be digested and absorbed at the level of the small intestine. The RUP escapes rumen degradation and flows to the small intestine where it too is digested and absorbed. Milk urea nitrogen MUN levels can provide producers information regarding over or underfeeding of protein.
Because protein is usually the most expensive component in the ration dietary excesses are not desirable in either an economic and environmental sense.
Phosphorous Phosphorous P in feedstuffs is not utilized efficiently in ruminants. This, coupled with higher than needed requirements due to misplaced concerns over reproductive and production performance has led to overfeeding of P in dairy rations.
Nutritional Management of Dairy Cows
A significant amount of dietary P is excreted in the manure, which has led to accumulating levels of soil P. Humans have also modified the land to accommodate infrastructures in order to meet anthropogenic needs e. Such infrastructure reduces population size by replacing natural habitat and causing animals to avoid those areas e. Some crops are nutritionally attractive to wild animals and provide both energy Sukumar, ; Riley et al.
Also of interest
However, the effects on the health of these species are poorly studied. In contrast, the availability of grain crops in the winter for several species of geese has provided an excellent food source Gates et al. Thus the effects of replacing native vegetation with alternative food sources are still not known for most herbivores. Invasive species Human-caused habitat disturbance has been associated with an increased likelihood of invasion of communities by non-native species Hobbs and Huenneke, , such as large oil well sites which increase the presence of non-native plants Preston, Some now invasive species were even purposely planted as food for wildlife Kaufman and Kaufman, , even though native plants are often nutritionally better for herbivores than introduced species Applegate, This alters prey abundance, but the direction of this effect will depend on whether invaders affect common or rare native species Powell et al.
Introduced species can also affect the diet quality of their consumers, but this effect will depend on how the ratio of nutrients and secondary compounds differs between native and introduced prey Maerz et al. Introduced species can have diverse effects on species interactions. A famous example of a successful invasive species is the Eurasian zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels modify the concentration of nutrients and the community of algae in whole ecosystems Caraco et al.
In Australia, toxic cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to deal with plant pests, but their presence has had many unintended consequences.
2 editions of this work
For example, northern trout gudgeon Mogurnda mogurnda exposed to cane toad tadpoles showed reduced rate of consumption of native tadpoles Nelson et al. However, there has been a lack of study focused on the nutritional effects on native animals beyond simple consumption, and none linking these effects to fitness. Anthropogenic disturbances Human disturbance can modify feeding strategies through increased nocturnal illumination and acoustic disturbances.
Natural lighting cycles affect foraging in a wide variety of species reviewed in Navara and Nelson, and so it should be no surprise that artificial lighting changes these behaviours, especially as it can exceed the intensity of any natural lunar phase Cinzano et al.
Both prey and predators are affected by artificial light. Insects are readily attracted to nocturnal lights, and this is changing not only the abundance but also the species composition of this prey base Davies et al. Some prey reduce foraging under lights Kotler, ; Contor and Griffith, ; Brown et al.
Similarly, night lighting may impair the vision of some predators Buchanan, while others are more active and use the increased visibility Yurk and Trites, ; Rich and Longcore, which may change their distribution in the environment Montevecchi, However, when the light itself mimics a foraging cue, individuals may not possess the flexibility to change their behaviour Schlaepfer et al. For example, juveniles of many seabird species are drawn to lights, possibly because they resemble their bioluminescent prey Montevecchi, —a clearly maladaptive response.
In general, the severity of the effects of artificial illumination will depend on the trade-off between predation, foraging and competition, whether the species are naturally nocturnal or diurnal, and whether these new cues trigger previously adaptive responses. Acoustic disturbance has increased drastically over the past century, affecting communication in urban populations Birnie-Gauvin et al.
This form of feeding disturbance is especially detrimental to animals that rely on acoustic cues to locate food items. For example, sonar-using greater mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis spend less time foraging when exposed to traffic noise Jones, However, some species have the ability to cope with noise pollution.
For example, the foraging behaviour i. In fact, whale behaviour appeared to be more closely related to prey abundance than to acoustic disturbance Croll et al.
When noise causes individuals to shift attention, foraging often suffers. For example, noise led chaffinches Fringilla coelebs to increase vigilance scanning for predators and decrease food intake Quinn et al. However, if specialists are also more efficient at foraging, additional time dedicated to detecting predators may be more costly to generalist species Chan and Blumstein, The contrasting results from studies that investigate the effects of noise on feeding behaviour suggests that depending on the feeding nature of organisms, they may be affected differently and to varying degree.
Many reviews have suggested that foraging is affected by noise Kight and Swaddle, ; Francis and Barber, , but few studies have made direct links to nutrition. Another important form of disturbance is the very presence of humans, which is presumably the most direct form of anthropogenic disturbance for wild organisms and generally results in an energy cost Houston et al.
This may come in the form of hunting, horseback riding, biking, hiking, camping, swimming, fishing, skiing, photographers, or observers Cole and Knight, ; Boyle and Samson, ; Knight and Gutzwiller, ; Hammitt et al. The effects of such recreational activities on nutrition have seldom been investigated, but behaviour can be highly affected by human presence. For example, the presence of observers near the territories of European oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus led to less time spent foraging and reduced food intake for the parents, and decreased the proportion of food allocated to the chicks Verhulst et al.
However, brown bears Ursus arctos showed minimal effects of human presence as they altered their behaviour to maintain food intake and body condition Rode et al. Yet the same species of bear decreased their foraging activity and fed on berries of poorer quality when hunting risk was high Hertel et al.
When endangered Amur tigers Panthera tigris altaica were disturbed, they often abandoned kills, spent less time at the kill when they stayed and consumed less meat Kerley et al.Peter J. Rumen fermentation.
Some now invasive species were even purposely planted as food for wildlife Kaufman and Kaufman, , even though native plants are often nutritionally better for herbivores than introduced species Applegate, This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Can J Microbiol — He places nutritional studies in historical context to show not only the effectiveness of nutritional approaches but also why nutrition is of fundamental importance to issues of world conservation.
Related articles in Google Scholar. In general, specialist species are likely to be affected by habitat modification to a greater extent than generalist species Devictor et al.
Some crops are nutritionally attractive to wild animals and provide both energy Sukumar, ; Riley et al.
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