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ROCK LIRA PDF

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Rock Lira Pdf

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The story of the Pito and his skill in softening rocks with a herb Very old legends from Peru, collected by the priest Jorge Lira e. This gift was apparently communicated via an Andean woodpecker, Colaptes rupicola, locally called Pito, a bird of the size of a pigeon, that uses to drill a nest hole into quite rocky facades but also into adobe walls.

Doing that he is told to use a herb to soften the rock material. The Inca stone masons are said to have known the secret. Already the explorer Percy H. Scientific fact is that neither the skill of the Andean woodpecker in using rock softening plant sap nor the rock softening ability of plant sap themselves could be confirmed.

And the possible explanation is simple. Witnesses of Inca masonry work may have seen that crushed plant material was added to the reddish clay, the acid pyrite mud fig. And there would have been a reason for doing this: published experimental work shows that silicate mineral dissolution works via a combined action of chemical complexation and acid attack Barman et al.

Below pH 5 dissolution of silica containing rocks itself increases with decreasing pH value and thus increasing acidity. Organic complexing acids accelerate this process.

When interacting with aluminosilicate minerals organic acids can complex aluminium, and to a lesser degree silica. This decreases their chemical activity. The result is an increase of dissolution rate independent of solubility constraints. Oxalate, , is a very frequently encountered chemical agent in green plants. Examples are spinach, buckwheat, parsley, beets, chart, poppy, beans, fat hen, or rhubarb, amaranth, beets, potatoes, tomatoes, cereal, celery, chicory.

Many Andean plants could have provided oxalate containing juice for addition to acid pyrite mud for treatment on Inca masonry. If this addition really happened during Inca time and was known to some people, and since the hole drilling Andean woodpecker Pito, Colaptes rupicola, also was suspected to use the juice from a plant, this could have been the origin of the widespread myth of a stone softening plant.

In fact, if it was applied, the plant juice, with its oxalate content, just supported and enhanced the dissolution of silicate rock via acid pyrite mud by allowing oxalate to form chemical complexes. Did Inca masonry workers apply heating? Bitumen is a combustible mineral. Did Inca masonry builders apply heat? Pyrite, FeS2, is indeed a fuel, and, when finely grained subject to self-heating. The same amount of pyrite powder would rise the temperature three times as much compared to the same amount of coal powder.

Many accidental fires have been generated by finely divided pyrite Bowes, This is a well known fact in mining environments and in Peru, for example, an always present problem in heaps of the mine Cerro del Pasco. The rate of self-heating, of course, depends on the ability of the system to release heat into the environment. There was steam involved and this gave the impression that the applied material was heated. It simply makes sense. If, in special applications, crushed pyrite in addition to some other accidentally contained sulphide minerals would have additionally been added to the reddish mud and sufficiently heated, self-oxidation would have started and accelerated itself with increasing temperature.

The result would have been hot sulphuric acid according to equations 2 and 3. This would have definitively supported and improved the silica gel forming action of the reddish mud in the gaps between hammered stone blocks. Because of the comparatively small amounts of pyrite in the narrow stone gaps in relation to the large volume of the adjacent stone blocks the heating effect of pyrite oxidation on the volcanic or magmatic stone blocks will have remained small, probably within 50 to degrees.

Only colour changes may be expected as a consequence within the stone junctions iron containing rocks would be reddening, which could explain the brown colouration in the stone joints of fig.

Characteristic high temperature effects and thermal shock cracks, disintegration should therefore typically not be seen on Inca stone surfaces.

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An exception may be the Inca ruins of Chinchero, which were burned down by the followers of Manco Capac II during war activities. Application of acid pyrite mud technique during Inca time Stone workers in the Inca empire may have used plant material for transport and handling the chemically aggressive pyrite mud.

This way they may have discovered that plant juice is significantly increasing the ability of the pyrite mud to superficially soften and dissolve hard volcanic or magmatic rock material. Stone workers may have also discovered that heating the acid mud and adding additional crashed pyrite could significantly improve its ability to dissolve silicate rock.

In Inca stonework masonry the load-bearing faces are closely fitted throughout the surfaces fig. This may indicate that applying load was an important strategy towards obtaining optimized interfaces.

These phenomena were studied in some detail in relation to geochemical and geological processes. Pressure dissolution concerns the dissolution of minerals into an aqueous pore fluid at grain- to -grain contacts in presence of high stress.

Where pressure between grains builds up the rock material cracks and degrades. It is compacted because material is consequently dissolved and chemicals and particles are transported away to induce new material growth at stress free locations Rutter, , Pressure solution occurs at stressed individual grain contacts.

Dissolved quartz then precipitates on free adjacent grains. This would have helped modelling the shape of the weight producing stone onto the lower one Fig. A similar, but modified strategy could have been applied to vertical interfaces between stone blocks. This will need the cooperation with archaeological authorities. This smooth layer has been analized by the University of Utrecht, Holland.

The surface layer, approximately 10 micrometer thick on top of the limestone besides of Ca, C, and O showing only low amounts of trace elements showed high concentrations of Si, Al and Mg. This indicates that a special material layer on silica-basis has been superposed. Of course, more detailed studies are necessary to confirm such findings, but it seems that a silica containing layer has intentionally been superposed onto a a limestone material to make the interface more resistant and perfect.

The here given explanation: a silica gel was produced by treating finely pounded volcanic rock material with acid pyrite mud. This resulting gel was then distributed onto or between lime stone interfaces for precipitation and hardening compare modern silica based stone preservation techniques explained further below.

Discussion Volcanic and magmatic rocks, as used in Inca masonry, are known to be slowly weathered by humic acids to kaolin and clays. Pyrite mud from mines, which has been oxidized by sulphide oxidizing bacteria can reach acid concentrations times higher, facilitating a correspondingly faster dissolution and formation of superficial silica gel. In addition the pyrite mud could have been heated or oxalate containing plant sap could have been added.

This could have increased solubility of silicate rock material by another one to two orders of magnitude. For confirming these ideas and for actually reaching a high level of understanding experimental archaeological research will be nevertheless unavoidable. Garcilaso de la Vega also explains its application.

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This exactly describes how the acid pyrite mud should have been applied. Also the observations of the informants of Cieza de Leon seem to make sense. Pyrite, contained in it is actually a combustible bitumen. But then he also speaks of molten gold, which was applied and obviously also disappeared from the joints of Inca stones. His informants may have seen pyrite particles in the reddish mud poured into or handled in the narrow gaps between stone blocks. Hot acid mud is much more reactive and acid concentration will also have increased due to evaporation of water.

And when the informants looked at what was poured in between stone blocks they may have seen glittering pyrite particles fig.

Most Inca stones are of volcanic or magmatic origin, are quite heat resistant and do not show signs of elevated heat treatment. From occasionally seeing such diverse crystals in the applied reddish mud it may have been concluded that molten lead, silver and gold is poured between the stone blocks.

The effect of the described chemical Inca stone technique for the interface and surface treatment of silicate blocks for optimized masonry is the following: First solid silicate material is broken down in undesired pressure stressed location by acid, complexing agents or thermal pyrite oxidation and transformed into small liberated particles and a silica gel. Then the silica particles are settling down in desired unstressed locations and allowed to solidify again.

Interestingly this empirical Inca silica gel strategy applies similar principles as modern techniques aimed at repairing weathered stones in historic monuments and buildings. The difference is that the silica species leading to the gel are typically not generated from the stone material but supplied from outside.

Two main strategies are applied. One consists in choosing organic silicide compounds composed of silicic acid and alcohols. They penetrate cracks, dissociate and form amorphous silica particles, a silica gel, which gradually leads to a superficial solidification of the stone material. The other technique applies first a chalk of silica on a damaged surface.

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Many of them the stones are so closely set that the seam is scarcely visible. To lodge them in this way it would have been necessary to lift each stone and lower it many times, for they had no set-square or even a ruler to help them to put it in place and see if it fitted. Neither did they know how to make cranes or pulleys or any other device to help them raise and lower masonry, though the pieces they handled are terrifyingly large..

Other translators e. There is a convincing example: Spaniards named the Colorado river in the US after the colour of the table mountains around. Summarizing the main information from both early chroniclers of the Inca empire: both confirm that a mortar or bitumen was used, described to be reddish and sticky by Garsilaso de la Vega, and combustible bitumen by Cieza de Leon. In another description, confirmed by both authors, gold lead and silver was poured in between stone boulders in certain cases.

Strangely nothing remained visible in the joint between stone blocks. And Garsilaso de la Vega confirmed this. It is also the name for powdered garlic or crushed, dried vegetable.

Results 2. Is there a need to invoke chemical treatment of Inca masonry? Only the joints are highly reflecting and seem to be vitrified. The surface of the monoliths and the connecting junction stones themselves appear only to be hammered. This suggests that there was a special treatment of the joints and an intention behind.

The reflection of light from some stone joints or stone surfaces is significant. Sometimes the apparent layer even refracts and diffracts light what means that it is to some extent transparent for light.

On damaged stone surfaces occasionally a distinct layer with very smooth surface is also discernible e. The preliminary conclusion from the present study should therefore be that a partial and selective chemical treatment of Inca stone joints and surfaces appears to have occurred. What techniques were applied and did Inca masonry builders have the materials and knowledge to do it?

One is dealing with a process of partial hydrolysis forming alumosilicates, which consist of submicroscopically small silicate crystals. Important kaolin deposits were formed like that e. Humic acids may reach an acidity of pH 4. Their protons replace potassium ions in the silicate mineral structure, which weakens Si-O-Al bonds liberating aluminium hydroxide and silicic acid.

The proton concentration is rate limiting for this process. It is also known that certain complexing acids like salicylic and tartaric acids dissolve silicate minerals ten times faster than other acids. The question to ask is: did Inca stone wall builders have access to highly acid liquid or mud, so that they could accelerate the weathering process by orders of magnitude?

The investigation based on this question produced a positive answer: It is suggested here that, during their mining activities Inca miners learned to know acid mine water, arising from the oxidation of sulphur rich metal sulphides like FeS2, pyrite or fools gold. Acid mine water is an unavoidable problem of environmental pollution in sulphide containing mines, for example in mines in which copper is produced from copper sulphides in presence of iron sulphide.

The aggressive leaching effect of acid mine water on rocks and wooden equipment in mines is readily visible in mine installations and well known to miners. But what evidence for sulphide mining exists from the Inca territory from pre-Spanish times? The Incas based their metallurgical activities on experience dating back to years to pre-Inca civilizations Lara Monge, Lechtman, They concentrated their own mining interests on the exploitation of essentially four different metals, gold, silver, copper and tin.

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However they knew and used also lead or platinum. Most of the mines were deposits of sulphides or associated with sulphides. Inca miners could well distinguish between gold and pyrite fools gold. But they did not know or use metallic iron Keatinge, Mining was a government activity and ordinary people had to offer their work as part of their tribute obligation. They were organized for work in mines in a similar way as for constructing masonry for sacral or administrative buildings.

So it could happen that workers with mining experience ended up building masonry. This way the notion of the corroding effect of mine water on stones could have reached the construction sites for Inca buildings. While gold and silver was mainly used for representation and rituals, bronze, the alloy of copper and tin became increasingly important for tools and weapons.

In addition copper was also alloyed with gold.

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This way the mining technology for copper gained more and more strategic relevance, so that numerous sulphide mines were operating in the vast Inca dominated territory.

And sulphide mines produced acid mine water, especially when sulphur rich minerals e. The process is basically activated by autotrophic, acidophyllic, sulphide oxidizing bacteria, which are gaining their energy from sulphide oxidation and are typically present in mine environments.

But when crashed pyrite fools gold crystals in moderately acidic solution are inoculated with sulphide oxidizing bacteria e. Acidothiobazillus ferrooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, Acidothiobacillus caldus, compare Fig.

The colour of Jarosite and Goethite is yellow-brown to brown, of Lepidocrocite red compare fig. Many details of the complicated interaction of sulfide oxidizing bacteria with pyrite fig. During that process crushed metal sulphide particles are transformed into a reddish mud containing oxidized metal complexes fig.

Due to their mining activities of sulfide minerals, Inca miners knew acid mud since they were regularly confronted with it and saw its effect on stones and structural installations in the mines.

With a pH value as low as 0. The question is now, in what form, at what occasions and how was the acid mud applied. There are several relevant questions: the logistics of transport of the acid mud from the mines or was it already produced locally? Only speculations can, at present time, be made on the first subject. Concerning the addition of other substances to the pyrite mud there is an interesting trace to be followed from popular tradition in the Andean highlands.

The story of the Pito and his skill in softening rocks with a herb Very old legends from Peru, collected by the priest Jorge Lira e. This gift was apparently communicated via an Andean woodpecker, Colaptes rupicola, locally called Pito, a bird of the size of a pigeon, that uses to drill a nest hole into quite rocky facades but also into adobe walls.

Doing that he is told to use a herb to soften the rock material. The Inca stone masons are said to have known the secret. Already the explorer Percy H. Scientific fact is that neither the skill of the Andean woodpecker in using rock softening plant sap nor the rock softening ability of plant sap themselves could be confirmed. And the possible explanation is simple.

Witnesses of Inca masonry work may have seen that crushed plant material was added to the reddish clay, the acid pyrite mud fig. And there would have been a reason for doing this: published experimental work shows that silicate mineral dissolution works via a combined action of chemical complexation and acid attack Barman et al.

Below pH 5 dissolution of silica containing rocks itself increases with decreasing pH value and thus increasing acidity.

Organic complexing acids accelerate this process. When interacting with aluminosilicate minerals organic acids can complex aluminium, and to a lesser degree silica.

This decreases their chemical activity. The result is an increase of dissolution rate independent of solubility constraints. Oxalate, , is a very frequently encountered chemical agent in green plants. Examples are spinach, buckwheat, parsley, beets, chart, poppy, beans, fat hen, or rhubarb, amaranth, beets, potatoes, tomatoes, cereal, celery, chicory.

Many Andean plants could have provided oxalate containing juice for addition to acid pyrite mud for treatment on Inca masonry. If this addition really happened during Inca time and was known to some people, and since the hole drilling Andean woodpecker Pito, Colaptes rupicola, also was suspected to use the juice from a plant, this could have been the origin of the widespread myth of a stone softening plant.

In fact, if it was applied, the plant juice, with its oxalate content, just supported and enhanced the dissolution of silicate rock via acid pyrite mud by allowing oxalate to form chemical complexes. Did Inca masonry workers apply heating? Bitumen is a combustible mineral. Did Inca masonry builders apply heat?It has been mainly used by Inca builders for the construction of Ollantaytambo fig.

Granite, as it was used in Machu Picchu fig. Jazz Rock Pop Folk Musical - kuenstlerforum-jever. Most Inca stones are of volcanic or magmatic origin, are quite heat resistant and do not show signs of elevated heat treatment.

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