zetom.info Tutorials Staad Pro 2007 Tutorial Pdf


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zetom.info AMERICAN EXAMPLES MANUAL. DAA/ supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no cost for those who wish to print them. 4 For example. and it is typically located in \SPro\STAAD\Sections\. the file you need to include is zetom.info Standard Training Manual. Starting zetom.info 3 5. Running Section Wizard 4 6. Running Mesher 4 Section 2 Tutorials 5 Tutorial 1 – Steel Portal Frame 6 Tutorial 2 – Reinforced Concrete.

Staad Pro 2007 Tutorial Pdf

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zetom.info V8i (SELECTseries 4). Technical Reference Manual view the End User License Agreement for this product, review: zetom.info Staad PRO zetom.info Using STAAD Pro Courseware MANUAL BÁSICO DE MODELACION DE UN PUENTE UTILIZANDO EL SOFTWARE STAAD PRO. Published July, Page 3. About zetom.info zetom.info is a general purpose structural analysis and design program with applications supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no cost for those who wish to print them on their own.

Pro apart from our competitors.

More are constantly being added. Add your own logo as well as graphical input and output results. Pro the easiest-to-use Structural Analysis and Design software on the market today. Pro Structure Wizard contains a library of trusses and frames. Use create any structural template.

ACI , , Save to an external AVI type of element, and with inclined supports. STAAD is the only software for the job. Pro Special Features technical support is available on demand. In addition, Bentley maintains a World Wide Web site and e-mail-based and customized report generation. User friendly navigation and organization of technical support. All REI products will evolve through at least one format.

To demonstrate a fourth option, start by activating the Nodes Cursor. Click node number 6. Click Edit Copy. This is a standard Windows shortcut to the Copy command. Click Edit Paste Nodes. A node number 10 is added to the model. Click on node 6 and then click on node 10 to create the cantilever. How to copy and paste members: Now assume that a cantilever is to be added at the top of this portal frame, to align with the cantilever at mid-height.

Note that the Nodes spreadsheet indicates that there are currently 10 nodes in the model. Select the cantilever on the left side of the portal frame using the Beams Cursor.

Click Edit Paste Beams. If the distance between node 6 and node 2 is known, then it could be entered in the field for the Y move value in the Paste with Move dialog.

In this case, it is easier to use the other option. Check the By distance between following two nodes radio button. Enter 6 for Node 1 and 2 for Node 2 , and then click OK. A new cantilever is added at the level of the top of the portal frame. Note that the Nodes spreadsheet now indicates that there are 11 nodes in the model.

Pro automatically handles the condition at node 2, and does not allow the Paste with Move command to create a duplicate node at that location.

The Copy and Paste Beams commands can also be used to copy and paste a group of members all at one time. Mirroring Structure Geometry: With the Beams Cursor active, place a drag box around the entire structure to select all beams in the model. Click Geometry Mirror…. The Mirror dialog opens.

This dialog contains a schematic diagram to help explain the use of the control options. Click the Y-Z radio button in the Mirror Plane category, to indicate that the mirror plane will be parallel to the Y-Z plane. In this case the mirror plane goes through the origin, so it is located correctly by the default value.

Note that the Plane Position category also provides the ability to locate the mirror plane graphically by clicking on a node that lies in the plane using the Highlight Nodes icon,. Click Copy in the Generate Mode category. In this case the intent is to create the full truss by mirroring and copying the first half. Leave the Mirror Member Orientation option deselected.

This option is discussed in detail in another Module. The other half of the truss is mirrored, and the display returns to the Main Window.

Click inside the Main Window to deselect all members. Note that the Mirror command does not create a duplicate member or duplicate nodes at the center of the truss. Pro will not duplicate any members that lie in the mirror plane. Pro prove this for you, follow the step-bystep instructions in the commentary below.

A message box appears confirming that no duplicate nodes were found. Click OK to dismiss the message. Click Tools Check Duplicate Members. A message box appears confirming that no duplicate members were found. Always start by selecting the members to be operated on before selecting Translational Repeat. Click Geometry Translational Repeat…. Pro allows the warning message box to be dismissed.

Translational Repeat is another way of copying and pasting a group of members. Pro is to open a dialog like the 3D Repeat dialog that acts on a member or group of members. If no members are selected initially. Note that the spacing values listed in the table could be edited individually. Geometry Only. The following table indicates which items do and do not get copied in a Translational Repeat based on the Generation Flags setting. This prevents the generation of members connecting the bases of the portal frame columns.

This causes the program to create transverse members in the Z direction. There are three options for Generation Flags: Set the value to 2 in the No. Notice that the Open Base checkbox becomes active when the Link Steps checkbox is toggled on. This is a way of providing a user-specified starting number for the members generated in each of the steps.

The additional copies are created along with the horizontal linking members as requested by the Link Steps option. A new column labeled Number From appears in the table. Click Yes to acknowledge the dialog warning that this is an irreversible operation. Click the Renumber Bay checkbox. Steel Properties ex. Enter a value of in the Number From column for Step 1. Note that no linking members were generated at the base due to the Open Base option.

The newly created members can be automatically linked to each other with new members. Use the Beams Cursor to select and delete these two members. Note that nodes were automatically copied. Note that the member numbers range from 1 through 13 in the original portal frame. Click member 13 the tallest column with the Beams Cursor. This option is explained in the commentary below. Its function and usage are similar to the Translational Repeat command.

Click Geometry Circular Repeat…. The number 11 appears in the Node field. The Through category provides three methods to specify a point through which the Axis of Rotation must pass: If the checkbox for Use this as Reference Point for Beta angle generation is activated.

Pro will generate. See the section on the Translational Repeat command for detailed explanations of these options. The program divides the total angle by the number of steps you specify. Pro creates eight frames arranged symmetrically about Note that the program does not create duplicate members at the 8 th step of the degree Total Angle we specified. A positive angle value rotates the copies in the positive direction of the chosen axis right hand rule. Pro Standard Training Manual Module 2 Total Angle is the angle subtended by the arc through which the copies are rotated.

The program actually created only 7 copies of the selected geometry rather than 8. If the Total Angle had been set to degrees and only 7 steps had been requested. Note that node 11 is not connected to any member. Turn off Beam Numbers. Pro would not have generated duplicate members at that center column location A copy of this model is already saved in this state in the dataset.

Click OK in the dialog confirming the delete. Note that even if the entire frame had been selected. This node is referred to as an Orphan Node. Select the line corresponding to member 13 in the Beams spreadsheet. Pro provides two options for addressing Orphan Nodes. Pro models by copy and paste: It is possible that this node may be needed for upcoming modeling steps. But in a more complex model. The Highlight option makes orphan nodes stand out graphically. Pro files by copy and paste methods.

In a simple model like this. Pro offers the ability to simultaneously run two separate instances of the program. This highlights any orphan nodes in the model.

The Orphan Node 11 is deleted. Click Tools Orphan Nodes Highlight. Pro models. Pro opens. Pro files open concurrently. Select all the members in the structure titled TOP by dragging a fence around the structure. They can be differentiated by the filenames shown in the Title Bars of the two windows.

Pro running on the Windows task bar at the bottom of the screen. Pro is open. This is a good application for the Reference Pt option in the Paste with Move dialog. Pro will insert the second structure so that the Reference Pt coincides with the Insertion Point in the model. To insert the braced structure so that it sits atop the two columns of the portal frame.

Click Reference Pt in the Paste with Move dialog. Pro on the Windows taskbar. The process is to pick a Reference Pt on the structure being copied. The node in the lower left-hand corner is currently selected. Use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate the structure until the node at the lower left-hand corner of the frame is visible.

A prompt in the lower left-hand corner of the screen indicates. Pro highlights the selected insertion point.

The current Reference Point is highlighted. Click OK again to acknowledge the Duplicate nodes ignored message. Pro will not create duplicate nodes at the tops of the two columns.

Then click back on the node in the lower left-hand corner of the frame. The Paste with Move dialog reappears. The mouse cursor changes to the Connection Point Cursor. They now both exist in the new model. Allow the program to close without saving the model. Click File Exit. Pro files are generated based on the original grid. Pro on the Windows task bar to make it active.

Click File Close. This example obviously uses very simple models to demonstrate the copy and paste function. Click the Nodes Cursor icon to activate it. The structural tool tip help pops up to display the beam number. Click Beam in the Tool category. The Tip Delay is in units of milliseconds. Make sure that Node Number. Click Node in the Tool category. Note the other options that are available to display for beams. Additional information such as member length. Hover the cursor over the horizontal member again.

Make sure the Beams Cursor is active. Make sure that Number and Length are selected in the Options category. Hover the cursor over the horizontal member. Note that Tip Delay can be adjusted to control the delay time before the tool tip is displayed. The current node is highlighted in the table. Double-click various nodes in the model with the Nodes Cursor.

The Loads button opens the Load Values table. This is because supports have not yet been assigned in this model and displacements have not been calculated.

Notice that the node number and coordinates update in the Node dialog for each node. Note that the Tables category in the Node dialog provides direct access to several tables pertaining to nodes in general: Right now there is not much information in this dialog because only member geometry has been defined so far.

Double-click on the horizontal member with the Beams Cursor. After properties have been defined and an analysis has been run. Another way to display beam or node numbers is with the Query function. A dialog opens providing the beam number and other information about the beam. How to display structure labels: Both the Reactions button and the Displacements button trigger the Results Setup dialog to open.

Select the Labels… command. The Diagrams dialog opens with the Labels page active. The Displacements button leads to the Node Displacements table. The Reactions button leads to the Support Reactions table. It is also possible to display beam and node number labels. Neither table is available for this model in its current state.

The Labels page can also be accessed quickly from the Symbols and Labels icon on the Structure toolbar. It provides options for labeling Nodes. If it is difficult to differentiate between the node labels and the beam labels. Beams Members. These hotkeys are available for most of the labeling options.

Notice that the node and beam numbers now appear in the Main Window. Hold down the Shift key and press the N key repeatedly. Physical Members. Note that the node numbers are toggling on and off without having to leave the Main Window. A reminder is shown at the bottom of the Labels page indicating. General display information. By default the starting end is green and the ending end is blue. It is particularly useful while modeling and interpreting results.

Another commonly used option on the Labels page is Beam Ends labeling in the Beams category. To override this default. These can be changed by clicking on the colored squares. Beam Ends labeling identifies the starting end also called End A and the ending end End B of each beam by showing each end in a characteristic color.

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It is often important to know which end is the starting end and which end is the ending end. On the Labels page. If the Opaque option is selected. Click on the Font… button in the lower left corner of the dialog. To differentiate between node numbers and beam numbers. The alignment positioning of the labels can be controlled in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Click View Options…. Leave this file open for use in the next section. Select the Node Labels tab.

Select Arial Black for the Font. Pull down the Style list on the Node Labels page. The Options dialog opens. Bold for the Font Style. Hover the cursor over the horizontal beam at the top of the frame to see the Beam Ends colors displayed. If the Beam Ends checkbox is toggled on. Hold Control Ctrl and click the four diagonal members. To see another helpful labeling option. Click OK to dismiss the Options dialog.

How to display member lengths and the distance between two nodes: One method is to use the Dimension Beams tool.


These settings are saved in a text file named StaadPro Toggle on the checkbox labeled Angle Text. The beam labels will now be oriented parallel to the members they correspond to. Click Tools Dimension Beams…. It is not necessary to save this version of the model. Pro models that are opened on a particular computer. It should now be very easy to distinguish node numbers from beam numbers.

Assume the goal is to determine the lengths of the diagonal members of the frame. Two limitations to this tool should now be obvious: It cannot be used to measure the distance between two nodes like node 1 and node 4 that do not have a member modeled between them.

Click Dimension to View in the Options category. All dimensions in the view are removed. Click Close. Click Remove. An alternate method of accessing this tool is to click the Display Node to Node Distance icon toolbar. Click Dimension to Selected Beams in the Options category. The dimensions for the four selected members are displayed. Click node 1. Click the Angle Text checkbox. The dimension Both cross braces are now dimensioned.

To remove one dimension. The dimensions are now rotated parallel to the members they reference. The command and the icon act as a toggle. Click Tools Remove Node Dimension to remove all dimensions at once. Pro is in the node to node distance measuring mode. How to control the view: Pro provides a variety of View Management options for viewing the structure. There are tools for changing the perspective of the Main Window, and also for creating separate view windows of all or part of the structure.

Pro provides two toolbars for changing the viewing aspect: Pro screen by default, but can be dragged to any desired location. It contains fourteen buttons for changing the viewing angle. The functions of the Rotate tools are generally evident from their names.

Click on each tool and observe its effect. Pro screen by default. It, too, can be dragged to any desired location. The View toolbar contains twelve buttons for changing the viewing distance and location: Each of their respective fence rectangles remains visible in the Whole Structure window as long as the Zoom window remains open.

Click and rotate with cursor. All functions in the Rotate toolbar are also available in the View pull-down menu under the Orientation item, although they are in a slightly different format. In addition to these tools, note that often the mouse itself is all that is necessary. Roll the wheel on the mouse to see how it zooms in and out. Click and hold the wheel to grab the model and pan.

Another way to change the view is with the arrow keys. Click in the Main Window to make it active. Then use the arrow keys to rotate the model up, down, left or right. How to display only selected objects in the Main Window: Drag a horizontal line across all rafters , just below the vertex. All rafters and the central column are selected. The selection inverts. All unselected objects become invisible. Click the Isometric View icon. Click View again, and note the check mark next to the View Selected Objects Only command, indicating that the command is toggled on.

Another option is to click the Display Whole Structure icon. How to isolate a portion of the structure into its own view: Click and drag a fence around the framing members at the elevation of the eave. Make the box large enough to completely include the members in the horizontal plane, but small enough not to include the mid-points of any of the other members.

Click View New View. A new window is created in which only the members in the horizontal plane at the eave elevation are visible. Enter the name Eave , and click OK. This isometric view has now been saved. The Save View As dialog opens. Enter the name Edge , and click OK. This side view has now been saved. Enter the name Plan , and click OK. This plan view has now been saved. Click Tools Cut Section…. The Section dialog opens. Click the arrow on the With Node list, and select node 10 , which is the node at the peak.

Click OK , and the Main Window displays a section view of the structure showing the members that lie on the X-Y plane that cuts through node Enter the name Section , and click OK.

This section view has now been saved. To access the saved views, click View Open View…. The Open View dialog opens.

The Main Window and any other views that have been created can be moved, resized, minimized, maximized, closed, etc. Three standard window controls Minimize, Maximize, and Close appear in the upper right corner of each window.

Windows can be resized by dragging the sides or corners in or out. Grids can be displayed in any window, not just in the Main Window. Note that Views are saved in an auxiliary file named modelname. Modeling Exercise 2 Create this model by applying the modeling techniques that have been presented up to this point.

Create connection between cross members at intersection. Link steps, open base. Delete the horizontal beam that connects the cross-braces at their intersection points. Use arrow keys to rotate model to match the figure above. If the Mirror Member Orientation feature is turned on. This model was created using the Mirror command. In the Mirror dialog. Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 3. Figure 3. If there are many rafters. This can save a lot of time when assigning attributes to members of the structure.

When working with structural models. If we cluster these members into a group. Pro allows properties to be assigned to a group using a single instruction. For instance. Pro as the formation of groups. Pro will add it automatically when the dialog is closed.

Pro user. A common mistake is to leave the Select Type option set to Node. Choose the Beam option in the Select Type list. Pro group names must start with an underscore character refer to Section 5. Pro session is closed.

The Define Group Name dialog opens. Associate to List — associates the highlighted group name with all of the members whose numbers are entered in the List field. The bottom chord members and only the bottom chord members will be selected.

In the Assign methods category. Associate to Selected Geometry — associates the highlighted group name with all of the currently selected members. Leave the Create Group dialog open. See the commentary below for a description of each option: It also displays the member numbers in the List field and changes the 1: Click the Associate button at the bottom of the Create Group dialog.

Enter TOPC this time. Due to the inclined orientation of these members. Click the Create button. Hold the Control Ctrl key and click the top chord members one at a time using the Beams Cursor to select them.

Click on the column at the left side of the model. All four of our groups can only be assigned to beams. A more efficient method would be to use the groups we have created to select all of the members in the three existing groups.


Pro allows more than one group to be selected without having to hold down any keys. They could be selected using the tedious method of clicking on them one at a time. Note that the list of group names in the Create Group dialog provides an indication as to which type of elements can be included in each group. The remaining members are the truss webs. Click on all three group names in the Select Groups dialog.

Also note that the list of group names in the Create Group dialog provides an indication as to which of the group names have been assigned to at least some members in the model and which group names are currently unassigned. Pro Editor. The members of the selected group should be highlighted in the Main Window.

The top chord. Verify by selecting each group name one at a time and clicking Highlight. Click Associate. The selection is inverted so only the truss web members are selected. If no members are highlighted after selecting a group name and clicking the Highlight button. If any of the groups accidentally got created as Node type groups. Pro also allows groups of plate or solid elements to be created. Pro will remove the member number from the group automatically.

Note that the general progression is to work from top to bottom of the Page Control area to complete the steel design example. Standard cross sections can be chosen from tables or custom sections can be defined. Whole Structure referred to from here on as the Properties dialog. The following standard sections from the American steel table database will be used in the current model: Click the General page tab in the Page Control area.

The Data Area on the right side now contains a dialog labeled Properties. The program maintains the list of these sections in the Properties dialog. Note the tabs across the top of the Section Profile Tables dialog for access to section tables for different materials. W 18 x 35 Channel: C 12 x 30 Rectangular HSS: Also includes properties for Glued-Laminated material. W Shape table from the Steel tab is active by default. Click the Section Database button in the Properties dialog.

Coldformed Steel. This button accesses a section properties table for the section type selected in this case. Below the Select Beam list is the View Table button. Make sure the ST radio button is selected. T is used to indicate a T-shaped section formed by cutting through the middle of the web of a standard W section. CM is used to specify a composite section comprised of a concrete slab on top of a wide flange steel shape. Scroll down through the shapes listed in the Select Beam category.

Note 1. FC and CW edit boxes become active. Information on all these specifications is available in Section 5. Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 Click on any of the other country names to see the libraries that are available for use with international codes.

When this radio button is selected. Note the radio buttons on the right side of the dialog under the Type Specification heading. The Material checkbox is checked by default. Material constants are determined based on the material selected in the Material list. Scroll down to the C12 sections.

Section 5. This checkbox is toggled on by default. When it is on. If the Material checkbox is toggled off. W18x35 appears as an available section in the Properties dialog. This will associate steel material properties with the W18x35 once it is added to the list of available sections.

Click Add. The section is added to the list in the Properties dialog. Click on the HSS Rectangle tab. This example problem requires a 7 in. The Material checkbox should remain checked. The C12X30 section is added to the list of sections in the Properties dialog. The following figure. Pro Figure 3. Click the Angle tab. Pro nomenclature.

Properties may not be edited in this table. The Property dialog includes various types of cross sections. Click the Close button to dismiss the Section Profile Tables dialog. The L section is added to the list of sections in the Properties dialog. This table is provided for quick reference only. Click on L to highlight it. The Values button in the Properties dialog accesses a table listing only the sections that appear in the Properties dialog and their properties. The values cannot be edited in this table.

It just provides a starting point for analysis. The Thickness button can be used to assign thickness to surfaces or plates if the model contains any. Double Angle. Materials are defined in another area of the program.

Click Close to dismiss the Property dialog. The Materials dialog lists the currently defined materials and their values for modulus of elasticity E. Click the Materials… button in the Properties dialog. Tapered I and Tapered Tubes are for creating sections whose dimensions vary from one end of the member to the other. Pro assigns a hard-coded section size without any attempt to design or optimize the section.

Column or Channel. Based on the profile that is selected. Click the User Table… button. The User Table button provides access to user-defined section properties tables. The Assign Profile tab provides a way to specify only a category of cross section. If the intent is to reuse the table in other projects. An example of an application for user tables would be premanufactured building design where steel sections of I-shapes are used. The Select Section Type list is used to define the section type: Click Yes to the warning box.

Pro Examples manual. We will not actually create a new user table at this time.

Staad.pro American Examples Manual

Click the Close button to return to the Main Window. If it is checked. Pro is based on current AISC tables. It is accessible from the Tools pull-down menu. For the American steel table. It opens the SectionDBManager window. Editing the American steel table with the SectionDBManager is a way to introduce an older section in order to analyze an existing structure.

Note that if the standard section table is edited. Older steel sections many not be listed. To display the full section name on the members instead of the reference number. Click on each of the two columns with the cursor to assign the W18x35 section to the columns. Select Labels from the pop-up menu. This is a reference number that corresponds to the W18X35 section.

In the Assignment Method area. Click the Sections radio button under the Properties category on the Labels page of the Diagrams dialog. Click the Assign button in the lower left corner of the Properties dialog.

Click the Assigning button in lower left corner of the Properties dialog to exit the active assignment mode. Note that the name of this button changes to Assigning. Take the time to review the settings in the dialogs and to carefully note which members have been selected before assigning properties.

Always use extra care when assigning member properties. Click G2: Click Select By Group Name…. During this process of assigning member properties. The Select Groups dialog opens. Click the line that says G1: If properties get mistakenly assigned.

The top chord of the structure is highlighted in the Main Window.

Click References in the Properties category on the Labels page of the Diagrams dialog. Click G4: The webs are highlighted in the Main Window. The display is neatened up by removing the section labels and replacing them with references to the sections.

A quick comparison of the reference numbers in the model to the corresponding sections listed in the Properties dialog confirms that the W section R1 is assigned to the columns.

The Member Query screens are gradually able to present more and more useful information as additional parameters are assigned to the members. Click on the Property tab in the dialog that appears. The pop-up dialog indicates that there are no entities with missing properties in this model.

Pro provides a tool to confirm that every member in the structure has been assigned member properties. This launches the Query function as demonstrated previously.

Click in the Main Window to ensure that no members are currently selected. If any member in the structure did not have a cross section assigned to it. Up to this point.

Pro also contains a local axis system for each member of the model. Why have a local axis system? First consider a cylindrical structure. The location of the nodes was defined with reference to a single point of origin in three-dimensional space.

In this case. Y and Z components in the global directions. Pro would have no choice but to assume they are all oriented in the same direction as shown in the figure below. On the other hand. Pro Technical Reference manual. Pro Standard Training Manual Module 3 a local coordinate system oriented along one of the axes of the members.

It is a reprint of Figure 1. Refer to the figure below. Local Coordinate System. Section 1. The figure shows the default orientations of the local axes when the global Y-axis is oriented in the vertical gravity direction which is the default in STAAD.

Pro to close it.

The online version of the Technical Reference manual is accessible from Help menu. Toggle on the Beam Orientation checkbox in the Beams category. The positive direction of the local x-axis is defined by a line going from the starting end node A to the ending end node B of the member. A labeled. To display the axes for the local coordinate system of all the members in the structure. Notice that the blue arrow local x-axis points downwards in the case of the two columns.

Its purpose is to provide a key to the colors of the local coordinate axis symbols. This is because the columns were drawn from top to bottom. For a refresher on how to confirm the direction that the columns were drawn.

Click the Geometry page. This orientation is due to the fact that the Mirror command was used to create the second half of the structure. By knowing that green signifies the Node A or starting end and blue signifies Node B or the ending end. Hover the Beams Cursor over the left-hand column until the Beam Ends colors appear. The Beam sub-page should automatically be active. The Nodes table indicates that the Y-coordinate of node 15 is This was a good review.

A consequence of this situation is that the flanges of the channels are pointing out of the screen on the right side. This means member 35 starts at node 15 and ends at node Note that the line corresponding to the selected column Beam 35 is highlighted in the Beams table.

These enable us to obtain results such as major axis bending moment. Beta angle is explained thoroughly in the next section.

Note that the four selected members are reoriented so that their x-axis direction and their flanges coordinate with the other bottom chord members. Click Tools Redefine Incidence again. Click Tools Redefine Incidence.. In addition to the local x-axis. The next section provides a better understanding of what this means. Angles have local axes that point in awkward directions. The main use for this command would be to adopt a global axis system akin to that used by CAD programs such as MicroStation.

Pro orients angle members so that the beta angle is equal to zero. The only other cross section in the steel design model that requires consideration in terms of the orientation of its local axis system is the single angle section used in the webs. The Property sub-page should be active. In the absence of any explicit instruction from the user. A rendered 3D view opens. Stretch the Beams spreadsheet far enough to be able to see that the Beta column has all zero values at this time.

Click the General page. Click View 3D Rendering. Figures are provided in Section 1.How to copy and paste members: The corresponding commands to be generated are: As before, click Create.

The four corners of the first element are at the coordinates 0, 0, 0 , 2, 0, 0 , 2, 0, 2 , and 0, 0, 2 respectively. Pro command files. Well-suited for drawing circular models using piece-wise linear techniques. Pro menu bar.. In the UBC method, only a single period is used. There are two base unit systems in the program which control the units length, force, temperature, etc.